Book Description

New edition of the successful textbook updated to include new material on UAVs, design guidelines in aircraft engine component systems and additional end of chapter problems

Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition follows the successful first edition textbook with comprehensive treatment of the subjects in airbreathing propulsion, from the basic principles to more advanced treatments in engine components and system integration.

This new edition has been extensively updated to include a number of new and important topics. A chapter is now included on General Aviation and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Propulsion Systems that includes a discussion on electric and hybrid propulsion. Propeller theory is added to the presentation of turboprop engines. A new section in cycle analysis treats Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) and Geared Turbofan engines. New material on drop-in biofuels and design for sustainability is added to refl ect the FAA’s 2025 Vision.

In addition, the design guidelines in aircraft engine components are expanded to make the book user friendly for engine designers. Extensive review material and derivations are included to help the reader navigate through the subject with ease.

Key features:

  • General Aviation and UAV Propulsion Systems are presented in a new chapter
  • Discusses Ultra-High Bypass and Geared Turbofan engines
  • Presents alternative drop-in jet fuels
  • Expands on engine components’ design guidelines
  • The end-of-chapter problem sets have been increased by nearly 50% and solutions are available on a companion website
  • Presents a new section on engine performance testing and instrumentation
  • Includes a new 10-Minute Quiz appendix (with 45 quizzes) that can be used as a continuous assessment and improvement tool in teaching/learning propulsion principles and concepts
  • Includes a new appendix on Rules of Thumb and Trends in aircraft propulsion

Aircraft Propulsion, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for graduate and undergraduate students, and is also an excellent source of information for researchers and practitioners in the aerospace and power industry.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface to the Second Edition
    1. Acknowledgments
  2. Preface
    1. Intended Audience
    2. Motivation
    3. Mathematical Level
    4. Chapter Organization and Topical Coverage
    5. Instructor Resources
    6. Acknowledgments
  3. Nomenclature
  4. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 History of the Airbreathing Jet Engine, a Twentieth-Century Invention—The Beginning
    2. 1.2 Innovations in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines
    3. 1.3 New Engine Concepts
    4. 1.4 New Vehicles
    5. 1.5 Summary
    6. 1.6 Roadmap for the Second Edition
    7. References
    8. Problems
  5. 2 Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat: A Review
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 A Brief Review of Thermodynamics
    3. 2.3 Isentropic Process and Isentropic Flow
    4. 2.4 Conservation Principles for Systems and Control Volumes
    5. 2.5 Speed of Sound & Mach Number
    6. 2.6 Stagnation State
    7. 2.7 Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow
    8. 2.8 Area–Mach Number Relationship
    9. 2.9 Sonic Throat
    10. 2.10 Waves in Supersonic Flow
    11. 2.11 Normal Shocks
    12. 2.12 Oblique Shocks
    13. 2.13 Conical Shocks
    14. 2.14 Expansion Waves
    15. 2.15 Frictionless, Constant-Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer
    16. 2.16 Adiabatic Flow of a Calorically Perfect Gas in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction
    17. 2.17 Friction (Drag) Coefficient Cf and D’Arcy Friction Factor and D’Arcy Friction Factor fD
    18. 2.18 Dimensionless Parameters
    19. 2.19 Fluid Impulse
    20. 2.20 Summary of Fluid Impulse
    21. References
    22. Problems
  6. 3 Engine Thrust and Performance Parameters
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Installed Thrust—Some Bookkeeping Issues on Thrust and Drag
    3. 3.3 Engine Thrust Based on the Sum of Component Impulse
    4. 3.4 Rocket Thrust
    5. 3.5 Airbreathing Engine Performance Parameters
    6. 3.6 Modern Engines, Their Architecture and Some Performance Characteristics
    7. 3.7 Summary
    8. References
    9. Problems
  7. 4 Gas Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Gas Generator
    3. 4.3 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines
    4. 4.4 Analysis of a Mixed-Exhaust Turbofan Engine with an Afterburner
    5. 4.5 The Turboprop Engine
    6. 4.6 Summary
    7. References
    8. Problems
  8. 5 General Aviation and Uninhabited Aerial  Vehicle Propulsion System
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Cycle Analysis
    3. 5.3 Power and Efficiency
    4. 5.4 Engine Components and Classifications
    5. 5.5 Scaling of Aircraft Reciprocating Engines
    6. 5.6 Aircraft Engine Systems
    7. 5.7 Electric Engines
    8. 5.8 Propellers and Reduction Gears
    9. References
    10. Problems
    11. Notes
  9. 6 Aircraft Engine Inlets and Nozzles
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 The Flight Mach Number and Its Impact on Inlet Duct Geometry
    3. 6.3 Diffusers
    4. 6.4 An Ideal Diffuser
    5. 6.5 Real Diffusers and Their Stall Characteristics
    6. 6.6 Subsonic Diffuser Performance
    7. 6.7 Subsonic Cruise Inlet
    8. 6.8 Transition Ducts
    9. 6.9 An Interim Summary for Subsonic Inlets
    10. 6.10 Supersonic Inlets
    11. 6.11 Normal Shock Inlets
    12. 6.12 External Compression Inlets
    13. 6.13 Variable Geometry—External Compression Inlets
    14. 6.14 Mixed-Compression Inlets
    15. 6.15 Supersonic Inlet Types and Their Performance—A Review
    16. 6.16 Standards for Supersonic Inlet Recovery
    17. 6.17 Exhaust Nozzle
    18. 6.18 Gross Thrust
    19. 6.19 Nozzle Adiabatic Efficiency
    20. 6.20 Nozzle Total Pressure Ratio
    21. 6.21 Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR) and Critical Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPRcrit.)
    22. 6.22 Relation Between Nozzle Figures of Merit, ηn and πn
    23. 6.23 A Convergent Nozzle or a De Laval?
    24. 6.24 The Effect of Boundary Layer Formation on Nozzle Internal Performance
    25. 6.25 Nozzle Exit Flow Velocity Coefficient
    26. 6.26 Effect of Flow Angularity on Gross Thrust
    27. 6.27 Nozzle Gross Thrust Coefficient Cfg
    28. 6.28 Overexpanded Nozzle Flow—Shock Losses
    29. 6.29 Nozzle Area Scheduling, A8 and A9/A8
    30. 6.30 Nozzle Exit Area Scheduling, A9/A8
    31. 6.31 Nozzle Cooling
    32. 6.32 Thrust Reverser and Thrust Vectoring
    33. 6.33 Hypersonic Nozzle
    34. 6.34 Exhaust Mixer and Gross Thrust Gain in a Mixed-Flow Turbofan Engine
    35. 6.35 Noise
    36. 6.36 Nozzle-Turbine (Structural) Integration
    37. 6.37 Summary of Exhaust Systems
    38. References
    39. Problems
  10. 7 Combustion Chambers and Afterburners
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Laws Governing Mixture of Gases
    3. 7.3 Chemical Reaction and Flame Temperature
    4. 7.4 Chemical Equilibrium and Chemical Composition
    5. 7.5 Chemical Kinetics
    6. 7.6 Combustion Chamber
    7. 7.7 Combustion-Generated Pollutants
    8. 7.8 Aviation Fuels
    9. 7.9 Alternative “Drop-In” Jet Fuels (AJFs)
    10. 7.10 Combustion Instability: Screech and Rumble
    11. 7.11 Summary
    12. References
    13. Problems
  11. 8 Axial Compressor Aerodynamics
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 The Geometry
    3. 8.3 Rotor and Stator Frames of Reference
    4. 8.4 The Euler Turbine Equation
    5. 8.5 Axial-Flow Versus Radial-Flow Machines
    6. 8.6 Axial-Flow Compressors and Fans
    7. 8.7 Compressor Performance Map
    8. 8.8 Compressor Instability – Stall and Surge
    9. 8.9 Multistage Compressors and Their Operating Line
    10. 8.10 Multistage Compressor Stalling Pressure Rise and Stall Margin
    11. 8.11 Multistage Compressor Starting Problem
    12. 8.12 The Effect of Inlet Flow Condition on Compressor Performance
    13. 8.13 Isometric and Cutaway Views of Axial-Flow Compressor Hardware
    14. 8.14 Compressor Design Parameters and Principles
    15. 8.15 Summary
    16. References
    17. Problems
  12. 9 Centrifugal Compressor Aerodynamics
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Centrifugal Compressors
    3. 9.3 Radial Diffuser
    4. 9.4 Inducer
    5. 9.5 Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) and Inducer-Less Impellers
    6. 9.6 Impeller Exit Flow and Blockage Effects
    7. 9.7 Efficiency and Performance
    8. 9.8 Summary
    9. References
    10. Problems
  13. 10 Aerothermo-dynamics of Gas Turbines
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Axial-Flow Turbines
    3. 10.3 Turbine Performance Map
    4. 10.4 The Effect of Cooling on Turbine Efficiency
    5. 10.5 Turbine Blade Profile Design
    6. 10.6 Stresses in Turbine Blades and Disks and Useful Life Estimation
    7. 10.7 Axial-Flow Turbine Design and Practices
    8. 10.8 Gas Turbine Design Summary
    9. 10.9 Summary
    10. References
    11. Problems
  14. 11 Aircraft Engine Component Matching and Off-Design Analysis
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Engine (Steady-State) Component Matching
    3. 11.3 Engine Off-Design Analysis
    4. 11.4 Unchoked Nozzles and Other Off-Design Iteration Strategies
    5. 11.5 Principles of Engine Performance Testing
    6. 11.6 Summary
    7. References
    8. Problems
  15. 12 Chemical Rocket and Hypersonic Propulsion
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 From Takeoff to Earth Orbit
    3. 12.3 Chemical Rockets
    4. 12.4 Chemical Rocket Applications
    5. 12.5 New Parameters in Rocket Propulsion
    6. 12.6 Thrust Coefficient, CF
    7. 12.7 Characteristic Velocity, c*
    8. 12.8 Flight Performance
    9. 12.9 Multistage Rockets
    10. 12.10 Propulsive and Overall Efficiencies
    11. 12.11 Chemical Rocket Combustion Chamber
    12. 12.12 Thrust Chamber Cooling
    13. 12.13 Combustor Volume and Shape
    14. 12.14 Rocket Nozzles
    15. 12.15 High-Speed Airbreathing Engines
    16. 12.16 Rocket-Based Airbreathing Propulsion
    17. 12.17 Summary
    18. References
    19. Problems
  16. A. U.S. Standard Atmosphere
    1. U.S. Standard Atmosphere U.S. Units
    2. U.S. Standard Atmosphere SI Units
  17. B. Isentropic Table
    1. Isentropic Table γ = 1.4
    2. Isentropic Table γ = 1.3
  18. C. Normal Shock Table
    1. Normal Shock Table γ = 1.4
    2. Normal Shock Table γ = 1.3
  19. D. Rayleigh Flow
    1. Rayleigh Flow γ = 1.4
    2. Rayleigh Flow γ = 1.3
  20. E. Fanno Flow
    1. Fanno Flow γ = 1.4
    2. Fanno Flow γ = 1.3
  21. F. Prandtl–Meyer Function and Mach Angle
  22. G. Oblique Shock Charts
    1. Oblique Shock Charts γ = 1.4
  23. H. Conical Shock Charts
    1. Conical Shock Charts γ = 1.4
  24. I. Cascade Data
    1. NACA-65 Series Cascade Data
    2. Cascade Data

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