About The Pharmaceutical Chemistry Book

“This pharmaceutical chemistry book has succeeded in covering the basic chemistry essentials required by the pharmaceutical science student… the undergraduate reader, be they chemist, biologist or pharmacist will find this an interesting and valuable read.” –Journal of Chemical Biology, May 2009

Chemistry for Pharmacy Students is a student-friendly introduction to the key areas of chemistry required by all pharmacy and pharmaceutical science students. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the various areas of general, organic and natural products chemistry (in relation to drug molecules).

Clearly structured to enhance student understanding, the chemistry for pharmacy students book is divided into six clear sections. The book opens with an overview of general aspects of chemistry and their importance to modern life, with particular emphasis on medicinal applications. The pharmaceutical chemistry book then moves on to a discussion of the concepts of atomic structure and bonding and the fundamentals of stereochemistry and their significance to pharmacy- in relation to drug action and toxicity. Various aspects of aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic chemistry and their pharmaceutical importance are then covered with final chapters looking at organic reactions and their applications to drug discovery and development and natural products chemistry.

  • accessible introduction to the key areas of chemistry required for all pharmacy degree courses
  • student-friendly and written at a level suitable for non-chemistry students
  • includes learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter
  • focuses on the physical properties and actions of drug molecules

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Role of chemistry in modern life 1

1.2 Physical properties of drug molecules 3

2 Atomic structure and bonding 17

2.1 Atoms, elements and compounds 17

2.2 Atomic structure: orbitals and electronic configurations 18

2.3 Chemical bonding theories: formation of chemical bonds 21

2.4 Electronegativity and chemical bonding 27

2.5 Bond polarity and intermolecular forces 28

2.6 Significance of chemical bonding in drug–receptor interactions 31

3 Stereochemistry 35

3.1 Stereochemistry: definition 36

3.2 Isomerism 36

3.3 Significance of stereoisomerism in determining drug action and toxicity 53

3.4 Synthesis of chiral molecules 55

3.5 Separation of stereoisomers: resolution of racemic mixtures 56

3.6 Compounds with stereocentres other than carbon 57

3.7 Chiral compounds that do not have a tetrahedral atom with four different groups 57

4 Organic functional groups 59

4.1 Organic functional groups: definition and structural features 60

4.2 Hydrocarbons 61

4.3 Alkanes, cycloalkanes and their derivatives 61

4.4 Alkenes and their derivatives 103

4.5 Alkynes and their derivatives 108

4.6 Aromatic compounds and their derivatives 112

4.7 Heterocyclic compounds and their derivatives 143

4.8 Nucleic acids 170

4.9 Amino acids and peptides 179

4.10 Importance of functional groups in determining drug actions and toxicity 184

4.11 Importance of functional groups in determining stability of drugs 188

5 Organic reactions 191

5.1 Types of organic reaction 191

5.2 Radical reactions: free radical chain reactions 192

5.3 Addition reactions 197

5.4 Elimination reactions: 1,2-elimination or b-elimination 223

5.5 Substitution reactions 232

5.6 Hydrolysis 260

5.7 Oxidation–reduction reactions 264

5.8 Pericyclic reactions 278

6 Natural product chemistry 283

6.1 Introduction to natural product drug discovery process 283

6.2 Alkaloids 288

6.3 Carbohydrates 303

6.4 Glycosides 319

6.5 Terpenoids 331

6.6 Steroids 352

6.7 Phenolics 359

Index 371

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