Solar energy engineering processes and systems pdf free download- 2nd Edition

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Energy policy promoting sustainable development is transforming global energy markets. Solar power, the most abundant of all renewable resources, is crucial to greater achieving energy security and sustainability. This new edition of solar energy engineering processes and systems pdf from Prof. Soteris Kalogirou, a renowned expert with over thirty years of experience in renewable energy systems and applications, includes revised and updated chapters on all areas of solar energy engineering from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The solar energy engineering processes and systems book includes high interest topics such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalination, photovoltaic technology, solar thermal power systems, modeling of solar energy systems and includes a new chapter on wind energy systems. As solar energy’s vast potential environmental and socioeconomic benefits are broadly recognized, the second edition of Solar Energy Engineering Processes and Systems Pdf will provide professionals and students with a resource on the basic principles and applications of solar energy systems and processes and can be used as a reference guide to practicing engineers who want to understand how solar systems operate and how to design the systems.

  • Written by one of the world’s most renowned experts in solar energy with over thirty years of experience in renewable and particularly solar energy applications
  • Provides updated chapters including new sections detailing solar collectors, uncertainties in solar collector performance testing, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), thermosiphonic systems performance prediction and solar updraft tower systems
  • Includes a new chapter on wind energy systems
  • Packed with reference tables and schematic diagrams for the most commonly used systems

Solar Energy Engineering
Processes and Systems

Soteris A. Kalogirou Solar energy engineering processes and systems pdf free download table of content

Contents
Preface xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 General Introduction to Renewable Energy Technologies 1
1.2 Energy Demand and Renewable Energy 3
1.3 Energy-Related Environmental Problems 8
1.3.1 Acid Rain 11
1.3.2 Ozone Layer Depletion 11
1.3.3 Global Climate Change 12
1.3.4 Nuclear Energy 13
1.3.5 Renewable Energy Technologies 15
1.4 State of the Climate in 2005 18
1.4.1 Global Temperature 18
1.4.2 Carbon Dioxide 19
1.4.3 Methane 20
1.4.4 Carbon Monoxide 21
1.4.5 Nitrous Oxide and Sulfur Hexafluoride 21
1.4.6 Halocarbons 22
1.4.7 Sea Level 22
1.5 Brief History of Solar Energy 22
1.5.1 Photovoltaics 26
1.5.2 Solar Desalination 28
1.5.3 Solar Drying 32
1.5.4 Passive Solar Buildings 33
1.6 Other Renewable Energy Systems 33
1.6.1 Wind Energy 33
1.6.2 Biomass 38
1.6.3 Geothermal Energy 41
1.6.4 Hydrogen 41
1.6.5 Ocean Energy 43
Exercise 45
References 46
2 Environmental Characteristics 49
2.1 Reckoning of Time 50
2.1.1 Equation of Time 50
2.1.2 Longitude Correction 51 v
vi Co ntents
2.2 Solar Angles 52
2.2.1 The Incidence Angle for Moving Surfaces 62
2.2.2 Sun Path Diagrams 68
2.2.3 Shadow Determination 70
2.3 Solar Radiation 72
2.3.1 General 72
2.3.2 Thermal Radiation 73
2.3.3 Transparent Plates 80
2.3.4 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 84
2.3.5 Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation 88
2.3.6 Atmospheric Attenuation 91
2.3.7 Terrestrial Irradiation 93
2.3.8 Total Radiation an Tilted Surfaces 97
2.3.9 Solar Radiation Measuring Equipment 104
2.4 The Solar Resource 106
2.4.1 Typical Meteorological Year 106
2.4.2 Typical Meteorological Year, Second Generation 108
Exercises 117
References 119
3 Solar Energy Collectors 121
3.1 Stationary Collectors 121
3.1.1 Flat-Plate Collectors (FPCs) 122
3.1.2 Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) 129
3.1.3 Evacuated Tube Collectors (ETCs) 131
3.2 Sun-Tracking Concentrating Collectors 135
3.2.1 Parabolic Trough Collectors (PTCs) 138
3.2.2 Fresnel Collectors 144
3.2.3 Parabolic Dish Reflectors (PDRs) 147
3.2.4 Heliostat Field Collectors (HFCs) 149
3.3 Thermal Analysis of Flat-Plate Collectors 150
3.3.1 Absorbed Solar Radiation 151
3.3.2 Collector Energy Losses 156
3,3.3 Temperature Distribution Between the Tubes and
Collector Efficiency Factor 166
3.3.4 Heat Removal Factor, Flow Factor, and Thermal
Efficiency 172
3.4 Thermal Analysis of Air Collectors 175
3.5 Practical Considerations for Flat-Plate Collectors 180
3.6 Concentrating Collectors 181
3.6.1 Optical Analysis of a Compound Parabolic Collector 183
3.6.2 Thermal Analysis of Compound Parabolic Collectors 186
3.6.3 Optical Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collectors 191
3.6.4 Thermal Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collectors 199
Contents vii
3.7 Second-Law Analysis 206
3.7.1 Minimum Entropy Generation Rate 208
3.7.2 Optimum Collector Temperature 210
3.7.3 Non-Isothermal Collector 211
Exercises 212
References 214
4 Performance of Solar Collectors 219
4.1 Collector Thermal Efficiency 221
4.1.1 Effect of Flow Rate 225
4.1.2 Collectors in Series 226
4.1.3 Standard Requirements 227
4.2 Collector Incidence Angle Modifier 230
4.2.1 Flat-Plate Collectors 230
4.2.2 Concentrating Collectors 231
4.3 Concentrating Collector Acceptance Angle 232
4.4 Collector Time Constant 233
4.5 Dynamic System Test Method 235
4.6 Collector Test Results and Preliminary Collector Selection 236
4.7 Quality Test Methods 239
4.7.1 Internal Pressure Test 240
4.7.2 High-Temperature Resistance Test 240
4.7.3 Exposure Test 241
4.7.4 External Thermal Shock Test 241
4.7.5 Internal Thermal Shock Test 241
4.7.6 Rain Penetration 242
4.7.7 Freezing Test 242
4.7.8 Impact Resistance Test 243
4.8 European Standards 243
4.8.1 Solar Keymark 245
4.9 Data Acquisition Systems 246
4.9.1 Portable Data Loggers 248
Exercises 249
References 250
5 Solar Water Heating Systems 251
5.1 Passive Systems 252
5.1.1 Thermosiphon Systems 252
5.1.2 Integrated Collector Storage Systems 260
5.2 Active Systems 263
5.2.1 Direct Circulation Systems 264
5.2.2 Indirect Water Heating Systems 266
5.2.3 Air Water-Heating Systems 268
5.2.4 Heat Pump Systems 269
5.2.5 Pool Heating Systems 270
viii Contents
5.3 Heat Storage Systems 275
5.3.1 Air System Thermal Storage 276
5.3.2 Liquid System Thermal Storage 277
5.3.3 Thermal Analysis of Storage Systems 280
5.4 Module and Array Design 287
5.4.1 Module Design 287
5.4.2 Array Design 288
5.5 Differential Temperature Controller 297
5.5.1 Placement of Sensors 301
5.6 Hot Water Demand 301
5.7 Solar Water Heater Performance Evaluation 304
5.8 Simple System Models 307
5.9 Practical Considerations 308
5.9.1 Pipes, Supports, and Insulation 308
5.9.2 Pumps 309
5.9.3 Valves 309
5.9.4 Instrumentation 311
Exercises 312
References 314
6 Solar Space Heating and Cooling 315
6.1 Thermal Load Estimation 315
6.1.1 The Heat Balance Method 316
6.1.2 The Transfer Function Method 318
6.1.3 Heat Extraction Rate and Room
Temperature 322
6.1.4 Degree Day Method 323
6.1.5 Building Heat Transfer 325
6.2 Passive Space Heating Design 328
6.2.1 Building Construction: Thermal Mass
Effects 328
6.2.2 Building Shape and Orientation 338
6.2.3 Insulation 339
6.2.4 Windows: Sunspaces 339
6.2.5 Overhangs 341
6.2.6 Natural Ventilation 345
6.3 Solar Space Heating and Cooling 347
6.3.1 Space Heating and Service Hot Water 348
6.3.2 Air Systems 350
6.3.3 Water Systems 352
6.3.4 Location of Auxiliary Heater 357
6.3.5 Heat Pump Systems 358
6.4 Solar Cooling 360
6.4.1 Adsorption Units 365
6.4.2 Absorption Units 367
Co nte nts ix
6.5 Solar Cooling with Absorption Refrigeration 381
Exercises 383
References 386
7 Industrial Process Heat, Chemistry Applications,
and Solar Dryers 391
7.1 Industrial Process Heat: General Design Considerations 391
7.1.1 Solar Industrial Air and Water Systems 395
7.2 Solar Steam Generation Systems 397
7.2.1 Steam Generation Methods 397
7.2.2 Flash Vessel Design 399
7.3 Solar Chemistry Applications 400
7.3.1 Reforming of Fuels 400
7.3.2 Fuel Cells 402
7.3.3 Materials Processing 408
7.3.4 Solar Detoxification 409
7.4 Solar Dryers 410
7.4.1 Active Solar Energy Dryers 411
7.4.2 Passive Solar Energy Dryers 413
7.5 Greenhouses 416
7.5.1 Greenhouse Materials 417
Exercises 418
References 419
8 Solar Desalination Systems 421
8.1 Introduction 421
8.1.1 Water and Energy 421
8.1.2 Water Demand and Consumption 422
8.1.3 Desalination and Energy 423
8.2 Desalination Processes 424
8.2.1 Desalination Systems Exergy Analysis 427
8.2.2 Exergy Analysis of Thermal Desalination Systems 432
8.3 Direct Collection Systems 433
8.3.1 Classification of Solar Distillation Systems 434
8.3.2 Performance of Solar Stills 436
8.3.3 General Comments 439
8.4 Indirect Collection Systems 440
8.4.1 The Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Process 441
8.4.2 The Multiple-Effect Boiling (MEB) Process 444
8.4.3 The Vapor Compression (VC) Process 448
8.4.4 Reverse Osmosis (RO) 450
8.4.5 Electrodialysis (ED) 452
8.5 Review of Renewable Energy Desalination Systems 453
8.5.1 Solar Thermal Energy 453
8.5.2 Solar Ponds 454
x Contents
8.5.3 Solar Photovoltaic Technology 454
8.5.4 Wind Power 455
8.5.5 Hybrid Solar PV-Wind Power 455
8.5.6 Geothermal Energy 456
8.6 Process Selection 457
Exercises 463
References 463
9 Photovoltaic Systems 469
9.1 Semiconductors 470
9.1.1 p-n Junction 472
9.1.2 Photovoltaic Effect 474
9.1.3 PV Cell Characteristics 476
9.2 Photovoltaic Panels 483
9.2.1 PV Arrays 485
9.2.2 Types of PV Technology 486
9.3 Related Equipment 488
9.3.1 Batteries 488
9.3.2 Inverters 489
9.3.3 Charge Controllers 490
9.3.4 Peak-Power Trackers 491
9.4 Applications 491
9.4.1 Direct Coupled PV System 492
9.4.2 Stand-Alone Applications 492
9.4.3 Grid-Connected Systems 493
9.4.4 Hybrid-Connected Systems 493
9.4.5 Types of Applications 494
9.5 Design of PV Systems 495
9.5.1 Electrical Loads 495
9.5.2 Absorbed Solar Radiation 498
9.5.3 Cell Temperature 503
9.5.4 Sizing of PV Systems 505
9.6 Concentrating PV 511
9.7 Hybrid PV/T Systems 512
9.7.1 Hybrid PV/T Applications 515
Exercises 517
References 518
10 Solar Thermal Power Systems 521
10.1 Introduction 521
10.2 Parabolic Trough Collector Systems 524
10.2.1 Description of the PTC Power Plants 528
10.2.2 Outlook for the Technology 531
10.3 Power Tower Systems 533
10.3.1 System Characteristics 535
Contents xi
10.4 Dish Systems 537
10.4.1 Dish Collector System Characteristics 538
10.5 Thermal Analysis of Solar Power Plants 539
10.6 Solar Ponds 545
10.6.1 Practical Design Considerations 547
10.6.2 Transmission Estimation 549
10.6.3 Applications 550
Exercises 551
References 551
11 Designing and Modeling Solar Energy Systems 553
11.1 f-Chart Method and Program 553
11.1.1 Performance and Design of Liquid-Based
Solar Heating Systems 557
11.1.2 Performance and Design of Air-Based
Solar Heating Systems 568
11.1.3 Performance and Design of Solar Service
Water Systems 574
11.1.4 General Remarks 576
11.1.5f-Chart Program 577
11.2 Utilizability Method 578
11.2.1 Hourly Utilizability 578
11.2.2 Daily Utilizability 580
11.2.3 Design of Active Systems With the Utilizability
Method 585
11.3 The f-Chart Method 591
11.3.1 Storage Tank Losses Correction 598
11.3.2 Heat Exchanger Correction 600
11.4 Unutilizability Method 602
11.4.1 Direct Gain Systems 603
11.4.2 Collector Storage Walls 608
11.4.3 Active Collection with Passive Storage
Systems 614
11.5 Modeling and Simulation of Solar Energy Systems 618
11.5.1 TRNSYS Simulation Program 619
11.5.2 WATSUN Simulation Program 624
11.5.3 Polysun Simulation Program 626
11.6 Artificial Intelligence in Solar Energy Systems 627
11.6.1 Artificial Neural Networks 629
11.6.2 Genetic Algorithms 644
11.6.3 Fuzzy Logic 648
11.6.4 Hybrid Systems 656
11.7 Limitations of Simulations 658
Exercises 658
References 661
xii Contents
12 Solar Economic Analysis 665
12.1 Life Cycle Analysis 666
12.1.1 Life Cycle Costing 667
12.2 Time Value of Money 671
12.3 Description of the Life Cycle Analysis Method 674
12.3.1 Fuel Cost of Non-Solar Energy System
Examples 679
12.3.2 Hot Water System Example 681
12.3.3 Hot Water System Optimization Example 684
12.3.4 Payback Time 686
12.4 The P1, P2 Method 688
12.4.1 Optimization Using P1 , P2 Method 692
12.5 Uncertainties in Economic Analysis 696
Assignment 698
Exercises 699
References 701
Appendix 1: Nomenclature 703
Appendix 2: Definitions 711
Appendix 3: Sun Diagrams 717
Appendix 4: Terrestrial Spectral Irradiance 723
Appendix 5: Thermophysical Properties of Materials 727
Appendix 6: Equations for the Curves of Figures 3.34 to 3.36 733
Appendix 7: Meteorological Data 737
Appendix 8: Present Worth Factors 747
Index 755

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